吉林特岗教师英语语法专题复习:同位语从句详解(三)

2018特岗教师招聘

七、同位语从句-语法区别

同位语从句与定语从句的的语法区别:

1.意义的不同

同位语从句是用于说明所修饰名词的具体内容的,它与被修饰词语通常可以划等号;而定语从句是限制所修饰名词的,它的作用是将所修饰的名词与其他类似的东西区别开来:

We are glad at the news that he will come. 听到他要来这个消息我们很高兴。

(news的内容就是that he will come,故that引导的是同位语从句)

We are glad at the news that he told us. 听到他告诉我们的这个消息我们很高兴。

(that从句是限制the news的内容的,即我们高兴只是因为他告诉的这个news而不是其他的news,故that从句为定语从句)

2.引导词的不同

what, how, if, whatever 等可引导名词性从句,但不引导定语从句。

3.引导词的功能上的不同

that引导同位语从句时,它不充当句子成分,而引导定语从句时,它作为关系代词,要么充当定语从句的主语,要么充当定语从句的宾语。如上例 that he told us中的that就充当told的宾语。

4.被修饰词语的区别

同位语从句所修饰的名词比较有限,通常有hope, wish, idea, news, fact, promise, opinion, suggestion, truth等,而定语从句所修饰的名词则非常广泛。 另外,when和where 引导定语从句时,通常只修饰表示时间和地点的名词,而它们引导同位语从句时却不一定;又如why引导定语从句,它通常只修饰名词the reason,而它引导同位语从句时则不一定:

I have no idea when they will come . 我不知道他们什么时候来。(同位语从句)

I’ll never forget the days when I lived there. 我永远不会忘记我住在那儿的日子。(定语从句)

八、同位语从句-特殊形式

1.间隔同位语从句

同位语从句通常是跟在它解释或说明的名词后,但有些情况下,由于句子结构的原因,同位语从句不紧跟在名词后,而被其他的词隔开。

A warm thought suddenly came to me that I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother's birthday

【简析】由于that从句太长,为避免句子失去平衡,此处用了间隔同位语从句。

2.suggestion,request和order等名词后的同位语从句用虚拟语气。

She made a request that the doctor(should)be sent for at once.她请求立即请医生来。

【简析】suggestion,order,request,proposal,requirement,command,advice,proposition和recommendation等名词后接同位语从句时,从句中的谓语动词要用“(should+)动词原形”的形式,其中should一词可省略。

3.短语及固定句式后的同位语从句

I will come on condition that John is invited.如果约翰也被邀请的话,我就来。

【简析】短语On condition, on supposition, on the ground(s), on the understanding, with the exception, in spite of the fact, on the assumption及句式There BE+no doubt(hope,chance,possibility,…)后的that从句为同位语从句。

【例句】

1. I have a dream that one day, all roads will be made plain.

2. We hold this truth to be self-evident that all men are created equal.

3. Some people hold the opinion that the Internet is a curse.

4. Museums play a role of education for the simple reason that they provide people with a good

Opportunity to have a deeper understanding of their own country's tradition and cultures.

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